Universities Around World

The purpose of this website is to provide a rigorous source of critical thinking information of value to many different communities. CriticalThinking.NET has been developed by Robert H. Ennis and Sean F. Ennis.

In 1951 Robert Ennis, then a high school science teacher in his first year of teaching, tried to infuse critical thinking into his science instruction. The trouble was that he did not know what critical thinking was, how to teach it, nor how to test for it. He has worked on these problems throughout his ensuing academic career.

Robert Ennis is Emeritus Professor of Philosophy of Education at the University of Illinois, and previously was Professor of Philosophy of Education at Cornell University after having received his PhD from the University of Illinois in 1958. He has written
or co-authored several books and tests and more than 50 scholarly articles on critical thinking, including:
  •     the "influential" 1962 article "A Concept of Critical Thinking" in the Harvard Educational Review;
  •     an updated and expanded definition/conception of critical thinking in 1991 “Critical Thinking: A Streamlined Conception” in Teaching Philosophy;
  •     a fully expanded textbook with many examples from different subject-matter areas, Critical Thinking, in 1996, published by Prentice Hall;
  •     the two Cornell Critical Thinking tests (with Jason Millman) in 1985 and 2005, published by the Critical Thinking Company; and “The Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test” (with Eric Weir), which is no longer in print but available with supplementary information;
  •     a history of the critical thinking movement and his role in conceptualizing, assessing, and teaching critical thinking, “Critical Thinking: Reflection and Perspective” in 2011 in Inquiry.
A full record of his academic background and publications can be found in his academic CV , and a list of his critical thinking publications under his articles about critical thinking.

Sean Ennis, an economist with his PhD from The University of California at Berkeley, is Executive Director of the Competition Commission of Mauritius, and has served in the U. S. Antitrust Division, the European Commission, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (
OECD). He has a longstanding interest in critical thinking and its role in economics. He has written test questions on critical thinking for exams such as the LSAT, and is writing a book dealing with thinking critically about one’s personal finance.